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Earl   AST Forum  

Flash Losses

Tuesday, July 10, 2018   By: Dunedin [1843] 1 Stars
Can anyone explain to me how Flash Losses are controlled when crude oil is dumped into a Fixed Roof Tanks and b External Floating Roof Tanks? I find information on the internet about how to calculate the losses but so far not so much on how to control them. I assumed this would be carried out before the crude is put into the tank but all the calculation do not seem to support this!

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Thursday, July 12, 2018   By: BABRTs973 [53] 5 Stars
When you are talking flash losses is this upstream in 12F production storage tanks
These can be controlled using vapor recovery units, pressure relief devices such as gauge hatches and stack valves on the vent lines.
On floating roof tanks, both IFR and EFR you have the floating roof itself, a liquid mounted primary seal and on EFRs or jurisdictional regulated IFRs a secondary seal, a gauge pole sleeve in slotted gauge poles and a gasketed gauge pole well cover and gasketed gauge pole seal. In addition a gauge pole cover in conjunction with a gasketed gauge pole float may be necessary. The roof legs need either socks or covers.
In short, if there is a visible gap, greater than 1/8 inch, it needs some form of control. Look up Federal Register/Vol. 65, No. 10/Friday. January 14, 2000/rules regulations Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 60 FRL-6518-2

If you are being asked to offer suggestions I have some other information you may find useful such as the percent of emissions of roof appliances. After the rim space on floating roofs being the largest emitter, a slotted gauge pole without a sleeve, gasket and gasketed gauge pole well cover is the second largest emitter. But in offering this advice I make sure the air emissions person is very clear, I am NOT a engineer nor regardless of my experience a expert. The use or not of any emission appliance is up to the engineer and the company official, or designated inmate, who signs off on the emission calculations for the facility air permit.
Thanks to some really helpful people who have and do help me with this I am somewhat smarter than the average bear on AST emissions and encourage inspectors to get familiar with emission controls and regulations as this is going to be a good revenue source in the future.

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Thursday, July 12, 2018   By: BABRTs973 [53] 5 Stars
Table 2A and 2B from the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 19-2 Evaporative Loss from Floating-Roof Tanks gives the improvement of various deck appliances for floating roof emission control devices.

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Thursday, July 12, 2018   By: Dunedin [1843] 1 Stars
Thanks for the very detailed response, however it is my understanding that all the equipment you mention are only effective if the TVP of the liquid is low as these tanks and the equipment operate at atmospheric pressure.

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Thursday, July 12, 2018   By: BABRTs973 [53] 5 Stars
Correct. If the TVP is above 11.1 storage in atmospheric ASTs is not recommended/allowed.
Using Flash towers or modified knockouts can lower the TVP before putting the liquid in the tank. These are the more common ways of lowering TVPs. Splitters can do it but are high volume and capital intensive.
Some try blending, but you need more than two truck drivers at a Coriolis meter manipulating the sample pot.

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Thursday, July 12, 2018   By: Dunedin [1843] 1 Stars
OK now we are getting close. If you use flash towers or knockout drums what happens to the vapors released into them? Also, the flash towers and knockout drums that I have found on the internet seem to be quite small and only suitable for a very small production well. What happens in large wells with large volumes of crude needing processed before taking to the large EFRT?

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Friday, July 13, 2018   By: BABRTs973 [53] 5 Stars
You need larger or multiple equipment. The flash gas goes into the wet gas sales line. The Vapor Recovery Units do a good job but are high maintenance. The new API 12 F will allow higher pressures to be held in the tank up to 16 ounces with a 24 ounce upset pressure. You may want to investigate having low pressure tanks built that can hold 2.5 psi. But the pipeline company or who ever is buying the oil may not allow it or you may have to take a big hickey on the RVP and Gravity.

Figuring what equipment will get the TVP down before you get it in the sales tank is very complicated. Driving around the field and seeing what other producers are doing and asking the pumpers what works and does not can give you ideas.

If you have the sales line to do it with, the flash towers seem to be the easiest way to drop the TVP but that puts a lot of low value product into the gas sales lines. I am not familiar with the tricks some use on the knockouts to lower the VP but some seem to have luck with it.

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Published on ast-forum.com


Atmospheric Design Pressure
By: Fathi [46]

The whole story is to avoid brittle fracture=

Test temperature shall be equal or warmer than Minimum Metal Design temperature at Test pressure.

I would limit my minimum testing temperature for a tank (or even for a vessel or a piping system) by the =

Temp = maximum of [ Min(lower shell) , Min(shell# 2) ....Min (Upper shell) ]

For a Shell# i the minimum is function ( of shell tickness , Material group ) and this can be found in API 650 , Fig 2-1

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